In lighting technology, fiber optic lighting is a unique new lighting technology. Because it has flexible transmission of light, safe and reliable. So it is widely used in industry, scientific research, medicine and landscape design.

1.The principle of fiber optic lighting

Fiber optic lighting system is composed of light source, reflector, color filter and optical fiber.
When the light source passes through the reflector, it forms an approximately parallel light beam. Due to the effect of the color filter, the beam is turned into colored light. When the beam enters the fiber, the colored light follows the path of the fiber to the intended place.
Due to the loss of light on the way, so the light source is generally very strong. The commonly used light source is about 150~250W. And in order to obtain an approximately parallel beam, the luminous point should be as small as possible, approximating a point light source.
The reflector is an important factor in obtaining a near-parallel beam. So generally use aspheric reflector.
Color filter is to change the color of the light beam parts. According to the need, with the swapping of different colors of the filter to obtain the corresponding color light source.
Fiber optic is the main body in the fiber optic lighting system, the role of the fiber is to transmit or launch light to the intended place. Optical fiber is divided into two kinds of end-lighting and body light-emitting. The former is the light beam is transmitted to the end point and then illuminated through the tail light, while the latter is itself a luminous body, forming a flexible column of light.
For the fiber optic material, it must be in the visible range, the light energy should be minimal loss to ensure the quality of lighting. But in practice it is impossible to have no loss, so the fiber optic transmission distance of about 30m for the best.
Optical fiber has single strand, multi-strand and mesh. For single-stranded optical fiber, its diameter Ф6 ~ Ф20mm. At the same time, it can be divided into two kinds of body light-emitting and end-emitting. And for multi-stranded optical fiber, are end-lighting. Multi-strand fiber diameter is generally Ф0.5 to Ф3mm, and the number of strands commonly for a few to hundreds.
The mesh fiber is composed of fine diameter body light-emitting fibers. Can form a flexible light band.
Theoretically, the light is a straight line propagation. However, in practical applications, people want to change the direction of light propagation. Scientists have been working for centuries to use optical elements such as lenses and reflectors to change the direction of propagation indefinitely. The emergence of fiber optic lighting is based on a limited number of changes in the direction of light propagation, achieving a flexible propagation of light. Just as a circular arc becomes a straight line after an infinite number of divisions, fiber optic lighting is based on an infinite number of reflections, the light is transmitted with the path of the fiber, achieving flexible propagation. However, the flexible propagation of fiber optic lighting does not change the classical theory of straight line propagation of light.

2.Characteristics of fiber optic lighting

a) Flexible propagation of light

Theoretically, light travels in a straight line. However, due to the diversity of practical applications, it is always desirable to easily change the direction of light propagation. Fiber optic lighting meets this requirement.

b) Separation of light and electricity

In traditional lighting, are obtained directly from the light source to convert electrical energy into light energy, light and electricity are inseparable. However, electricity has a certain degree of danger, so many occasions want to separate light and electricity to eliminate all kinds of hidden dangers and ensure the safety of lighting.

3.Composition of fiber optic lighting system

Fiber optic lighting system by through a long period of application and perfection, most of them have achieved productization.
Fiber optic lighting system is generally composed of three parts: power controller, fiber optic and tail light.

a) Power controller

Power controller by the light source, reflector, color filter and fan and other four parts.
The common power of the light source is 150w ~ 250w, the brand of products are Osram, GE and Sykes light source several.
Reflector is high temperature silver-plated glass, commonly used for aspheric reflector.
Beam color change is achieved by changing the color filter of different colors, generally red, yellow, green, blue and other colors. The color chips are fixed on a rotatable color wheel, and then the color of the beam is changed by a stepper motor.
Because the light source emits a lot of heat, so there must be a fan to cool the controller to ensure the normal operation.
In order to make fiber optic lighting with more colors and adapt to a wider range of needs, so by the intelligent controller to replace the ordinary power controller. It can change the intensity of light, the color of light to achieve continuous change, but also can flash change. It can also change synchronously with its music rhythm in the music fountain.

b) Optical fiber

Optical fiber has formed a series of products, it has two kinds of end luminescence and body luminescence. They are also single-stranded, multi-stranded and mesh.

c) Tail light

In terms of end-illuminated fiber optics, tail lights are generally selected according to the lighting requirements and the artistic effect of decoration. Common tail lights are crystal lights, pavilion garden lights, buried lights, chandeliers, etc.

4.Application of fiber optic lighting

The application environment of fiber optics is mainly six areas.

a) Indoor lighting

Fiber optic application in indoor lighting is the most popular, common applications are ceiling star effect, using the combination of crystal and fiber optic, the development of a unique set of star lighting products. In addition to ceiling star lighting, there are also designers who use fiber optic body luminescence to do interior space design, using the effect of fiber optic flexible lighting, you can easily create a curtain of light, or other special scenes.

b) Waterscape lighting

Because of the hydrophilic characteristics of optical fiber, coupled with its photoelectric separation, so the use in the lighting of water features, you can easily create the effect that designers want, and on the other hand, it also does not have the problem of electric shock, can achieve safety considerations. In addition, the application of the fiber optic structure itself, can also be used with the pool, so that the fiber optic body also becomes part of the water feature, which is not easy to achieve the effect of other lighting design.

c) Pool lighting

The application of optical fiber is the best choice for the lighting of swimming pools or the now popular SPA occasions. Because this is the place of human activity, safety considerations are much higher than the above pools or other indoor places, so the optical fiber itself photoelectric separation characteristics, as well as the color of a variety of color effect, while meeting the needs of this type of place.

d) Architectural lighting

In the architectural field, most of them use body-illuminated fiber optic lighting to achieve the effect of highlighting the contour line of the building. Because of the optical separation feature, the maintenance cost of the overall lighting can be effectively reduced. Because the life of the fiber optic body is up to 20 years, and the light projector can be designed in the internal distribution box, maintenance personnel can easily replace the light source. The traditional lighting equipment, if the design of the location is more special, often have to use many machines and facilities to maintain, the cost of consumption is much higher than the fiber optic lighting.

e) Architectural heritage lighting

Generally speaking, ancient relics or buildings are prone to accelerated aging due to ultraviolet light and heat, and because fiber optic lighting does not have the problem of ultraviolet light and heat, it is very suitable for the lighting of such places. In addition, now the most common application is in the diamond jewelry or crystal jewelry commercial lighting applications. In this type of commercial lighting design, most are to take the focus of lighting, through the focus of lighting to highlight the characteristics of the product itself. The use of fiber optic lighting is not only no heat problems, but also can meet the needs of accent lighting, so this type of commercial space is also a more widely used part of fiber optic lighting.

f) flammable and explosive lighting

In oil depots, mines, chemical plants and other dangerous occasions where fire is strictly prohibited, other lighting equipment have the risk of open flame, this part of the fiber optic lighting can solve such problems. And in the medical or special experimental environment, there are electromagnetic shielding problems in the place, is also a strong part of the fiber optic lighting.